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A Plate Tectonics Flip Bo...

Around 190 million years ago, Pangaea began to break up. The breakup resulted in two landmasses: Laurasia, the northern group of continents, and Gondwanaland, the southern group of continents; Gondwanaland included South America, Antarctica, Australia, Africa, and India. Breakups! North America: 130 mya Australia: 50 mya India: 90 mya Europe: 30 mya Antarctica: 50 mya […]

Shadow Zones

As the distance to the epicenter increase, the time delay between the P and S wave arrivals increases as well. The greater the distance from the epicenter the more progressively the S wave will lag behind the P wave. P waves (primary waves) are longitudinal waves that travel through the earth. When placed in solid/ […]

Weather and Climate

What is Weather? Weather describes atmospheric conditions in a given location over a short period of time, such as a day or a week. The atmospheric conditions include temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity, atmospheric pressure and the presence of fog, mist or cloud cover. What Causes Weather? The interactions of water air and the energy from […]

Where are Active Volcanoe...

Volcanoes formed at certian locations because they were along plate boundaries, which provide the ideal circumstances for magma formation and its subsequent eruption. At subduction boundaries the lithopsheres collide and the denser plate is pulled down into the mantle. This introduces water into the asthenosphere which lowers melting temperature and allows the less dense magma […]