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Rural Settlement Patterns

Population distribution – the pattern of where people live in a region, or across the country. There are 2 main patterns, dispersed and concentrated Two main catgories of settlement in Canada. Rural ,and Urban Rural – outside of cities and towns, low population density, dispersed settlement pattern Three factors affect pattern of rural settlement 1. […]

Early Cod Fishing

The Norse had explored and wintered in North America some 500 years before Giovanni Caboto, a Genoese explorer whom the British called John Cabot, rediscovered the land in 1497. Although Cabot failed to find a northern route to the rich spice trade in Asia, he returned with tales of an ocean teeming with cod and […]

Urban Land Use

80 % of Canadians live in cities cities are broken up into 6 major land-use groups – residential, transportation, institutional and public buildings, open space and recreational land, industrial, and commercial Residential Land Use Where people live includes low (houses), medium (town houses) and high density (apartment buildings) Takes up 40% of land in cities […]

Types of Industry

There are four major types of industry in Canada/USA/Europe. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary. Primary Industries Industries that take in raw materials from the natural environment. Also known as extractive industries. (known as primary because extraction, or removal of natural resources must happen before anything else can be made. Everything comes from the earth) Primary […]

Our Planet: The Four Sphe...

THE LITHOSPHERE The part of the earth that is made up of rocks and minerals, consists of the uppermost layers of the earth Came into being billions of years ago and still continues to change and evolve Changes to the worlds land masses, tectonic plates Volcanoes, earthquakes THE HYDROSPHERE The part of the earth made […]


The earth consists of air, water, and land. We recognize these more technically as the atmosphere, a gaseous envelope surrounding the earth; the hydrosphere, the waters filling the depressions and covering almost 71 percent of the earth; and the lithosphere, the solid part of the earth which underlies the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Atmosphere. The […]

Humidity and Condensation

*Water is the ONLY substance on Earth to commonly exist in all 3 states of matter! 1. solid– v 0°C; ice, snow, hail, frost 2. liquid– 0°>100°C; rain, cloud droplets, dew 3. gas– ^ 100°C; water vapor (The bubbles in boiling water!) *You can feel water vapor as humidity in the air! The more humid […]

Air Pressure and Wind: Wh...

Air Pressure: the force of air molecules exerted on a given area; the weight of the atmosphere as it pushes down upon Earth’s surface -Exerted in all directions because air molecules move in all directions. –Why aren’t we crushed by its weight? Because as the air is pushing in all around us, there are forces […]

What makes the wind blow ...

Wind: the horizontal movement of air –Useful in many ways: 1. moderates surface temperatures 2. distributes moisture 3. cleanses the atmosphere -Wind is constantly blowing across Earth’s surface! –What sets the air into motion? *Differences in air pressure! -Air wants to flow from an area of high-pressure to an area of low-pressure. *For example: When […]

Properties of Water & Oce

Oceans cover most (~70%) of Earth’s surface, thus, Earth is sometimes called the ‘water planet’. Oceans affect all our lives by providing food, allowing transport of goods, and affecting weather and climate. Oceanography: the scientific study of the ocean and seas Properties of Water *Water is an extremely unique compound! -Solid water (ice) is actually […]